Why should you care about Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
Simple…because Marketing’s main focus is engaging with humans and that means understanding human nature, its needs, reactions and top priorities is a basic part of the marketing role. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can play a major part in this.
For that reason, marketing and psychology usually overlap. That is why a good marketer knows that before developing a marketing strategy, understanding the target audience of a business is vital. Doing this through psychology is an effective way of getting to know potential customers properly as it helps us find out what they like or dislike, what kind of language affects them and more.
The more you understand your audience, the greater influence your marketing strategies will have. Therefore, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – a popular psychological theory – can be a very useful key to understanding consumer buying behaviour.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Definition: Psychology of Marketing
According to Simply Psychology “Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.”
In 1943, Abraham Maslow proposed a theory of needs in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation.” The theory suggests that there are five basic needs that every human being is entitled to fulfil. These needs are not equal, instead, they are hierarchical.
That’s why they are often called Maslow’s pyramid of needs, where the most basic and crucial needs are situated at the bottom of the pyramid. Once a level is fulfilled, humans are motivated by the next one, and so on.
Over time, Maslow continued to refine and expand on his theory, and it became one of the most influential models in the field of psychology. The Hierarchy of Needs has been widely studied and applied across various disciplines, including psychology, sociology, management, education, and marketing to better understand human behaviour and motivation. It remains a fundamental and well-known concept in the study of human needs and motivation.
What Does Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Include? (Original 5-Stage Model)
For marketers, Maslow’s Hierarchy can essentially be thought of as the five basic needs of every customer. These are:
- Biological and Physiological needs: air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
- Safety Needs: security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
- Love and Belongingness needs: friendship, intimacy, trust, and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work, etc.)
- Esteem needs:
- esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence)
- reputation or respect from others (status, prestige)
- Self-actualization needs: realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. Maslow described that as: “to become everything one is capable of becoming.”
It is worthwhile to mention that Maslow himself modified these five needs later. Two more were added before self-actualization, and one was added on top of the pyramid. These three needs are:
- Cognitive needs: knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning
- Aesthetic needs: appreciation and search for beauty
- Transcendence needs: values which transcend beyond the personal self (religion, experiences with nature, aesthetic experiences, service to others, the pursuit of science)
Observations on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (five-stage model) is divided into two categories: deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four are deficiency needs while the one on top is a growth need. Deficiency needs emerge when humans lack them. For example, when humans lack food they feel hungry, and therefore seek to satisfy this need.
The longer humans are deprived of a deficiency need, the stronger the desire becomes. Meaning that, the longer you are deprived of food, the hungrier you become. Once a deficiency need is met, the motivation to satisfy it disappears and humans seek to fulfill higher needs. Once you satisfy your hunger, finding food will not be your motivation anymore. On the other hand, growth needs do not emerge from the lack of something. They merely stem from a desire to develop and make progress. Moreover, growth needs do not vanish when they are satisfied, they may even grow stronger.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Traditional Marketing
What Is Traditional Marketing?
Traditional marketing is any type of marketing that has existed for a long time and has proved itself successful through the ages. The four categories of traditional marketing are: print, broadcast, direct mail, and telephone. In other words, these are the four marketing “elders.” Print covers advertisements in newspapers, newsletters, magazines, and brochures. Broadcasts incorporates radio and television advertisements.
Meanwhile, direct mail includes fliers, postcards, brochures, letters, catalogs, and other material that is printed and mailed directly to consumers. Finally, telephone refers to telemarketing whether through cold calling or requested calling. These four channels continue to prove their effectiveness, despite the disruption caused by digital marketing.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: A Guiding Principle in Marketing Strategies
Many marketing schools consider Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs a compass which should guide all marketing efforts. In any marketing strategy, the main goal is to persuade potential consumers that they need a specific product or service. Marketing schools teach that in order to succeed at that, marketing campaigns must address at least one of Maslow’s needs. Two important factors play a role in using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in marketing: identifying the product’s strength features and its target audience.
Identifying a product’s strength points means highlighting the main reasons why people should buy this product. Identifying the target audience is a main step of this process. Consumer demographics such as age, gender, social class, interests, etc. are key factors in determining the proper audience for a specific product.
Using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in Positioning
A company manufactures a new, cost-effective, mid-sized family car. Why would consumers buy this car? Is it because of its optimum speed or because it is more economic? If the company highlights “speed” in its marketing campaign, they would be giving people reasons to stay away from this car. This is surely not the car’s strength point. Who is the target audience? The business class or middle-class families?
Imagine if this company decides to promote its new car by considering the upper class as their target audience, will it succeed? This car is money-saving, but is that what an A-class businessman/woman looking for?
How to Fix It?
Solving this problem starts by knowing what each group needs. Middle-class families have lots of commitments and relatively limited resources. Most of their commitments are physiological needs which revolve mainly around saving money. In addition, they also need safety, comfort, and stability to guarantee the well-being of all the family members.
For that reason, it would be wise to highlight these needs to its matching target audience. On the other hand, most of the upper-class needs are esteem and self-actualization needs. There is a high probability that a businessman/woman has more than one car, so they are not exactly looking for a money-saving car. They need a luxury, high-speed car with multiple options instead.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Consumer Buying Behavior
Consumer buying behaviour is a broad term that covers a consumer’s attitudes, preferences, and decisions in the marketplace. A huge part of studying consumer behaviour relies on psychology and sociology. The first step in the buying process is problem recognition. Problem recognition refers to the time when a consumer realizes that he/she has an unfulfilled need.
The more basic the need, the higher motivation this consumer has. Here comes marketing’s goal, to convince consumers that a specific product meets their motivating needs. Traditional marketing achieves that through perception, attention, distortion, and retention.
“Perception in marketing is described as a process by which a consumer identifies, organizes, and interprets information to create meaning.” The way the audience “interprets” your brand’s marketing information is psychological.
Seymor Smith, a prominent advertising researcher suggests that selective perception is “a procedure by which people let in, or screen out, advertising material they have an opportunity to see or hear. They do so because of their attitudes, beliefs, usage preferences and habits.” These two concepts play a role in how the audience receives your marketing efforts.
Grabbing the audience’s attention is different from sending a marketing message. You may have a great marketing message to deliver, but nobody is attentive enough to listen. To get attention, marketing methods usually depend on shocking information, surprise, humour, visual aspects, or powerful headline.
In addition, selective attention means that “people are more likely to notice stimuli that relate to a current need. For example, a person who is motivated to buy a computer will notice computer ads or a person who is shopping around for a new car will be more attentive to car ads.
Not everyone who notices your advertising is going to receive your message the way you intended. This is called distortion. Distortion literally means “giving a misleading impression of something.” Viewers tend to distort the information they receive based on their own previous brand conception and product beliefs. In other words, people may be biased when judging your product based on their previous experience with your brand.
For example, when asked about their opinion of how a product tastes, consumers gave different answers when they did not know the brand of the product, than the ones they gave when they knew the manufacturing brand. Sometimes marketers call this “blind loyalty.”
Researchers estimate that the average person may be exposed to over 1,500 ads or brand communications a day. Viewers will forget most of the advertisements they see during the day. However, as a message is being repeated, it sticks into our memories.
Or as the saying goes, “Repeat it, believe it.” Brands who have been there for a while establish their brand awareness by maintaining the same slogan for a long time, such as “I’m lovin’ it” or “Just do it.” This helps consumers recognize and remember the brand through repetition.
How Can You Apply Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs through Traditional Marketing?
Study Your Product
A common mistake that marketers make is not knowing the strength points of the product they are promoting. Take time to know all your product’s features. Try answering questions like What kind of value does it provide? Most likely, each product has some key features that you should shed light on. One is money-saving, the other may be user-friendly, while another could provide higher security.
Pinpointing a product’s key features will help you determine which one of Maslow’s needs it addresses, and therefore, helps you determine the target group which desires to fulfil these needs.
Stay Relevant to the Target Audience’s Needs
If you managed to execute the first step correctly, staying relevant to your target audience should come naturally. By applying further study onto your target audience, you can figure out what they need. Creating a consumer persona is the ideal way of understanding your audience’s needs. Some target groups will be more obvious, while others may require further study.
If the product you wish to promote is a children’s toy, it is easy to determine what your consumers need from your product: safe for children, educational, entertaining, and money-saving. However, if your task is to promote financial services, the needs of your consumers is less obvious and your target audience have varying needs, which will require further studying from your side.
Deliver Your Message
The most effective marketing tricks lie in the details. Pay attention to the way you choose to deliver your message while addressing consumers’ needs. Determine the tone and language of your advertisements based on the your target audience’s characteristics. The tone you use in addressing mothers should be different than the one you use with businessmen. Age, gender, social, class, and the nature of the product gives your advertisement a specific frame of reference.
As we’ve seen, repetition is beneficial to consumer retention. However, exhausting your audience with excessive repetition will only bore them, and will wear your brand out. The old golden “Rule of Seven” suggests that a prospective buyer needs to hear or see a marketing message at least seven times before making a decision to purchase.
Marketing and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
As we’ve seen, the role of Maslow’s theory in understanding your potential customers could be of huge value. The fact that the Hierarchy of Needs has stood the test of time until today suggests that it Maslow’s thinking about human motivation has much to offer, even in the today’s world of digital marketing.
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy
Let’s take a bit of a step back. Why is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs important for modern marketers? The answer to this is fairly straightforward. The role of any good marketer is to find creative ways to consumers with the products and services which suit their needs.
It’s hard to do this without understanding what motivates consumer behaviour. As such, the importance of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs should be pretty self-evident.
The question then becomes how do you use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for marketing?
The key is to make appeals to each tier of Maslow’s hierarchy. That is how your products and services can make people:
- Be the person they’d like to be.
There are countless ways to use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in marketing like this. Levers you can pull include your:
- And really any other tool at your disposal.
The key is to use the factors which motivate your target audience to inform all of your campaigns. Additionally, consider that some audiences’ needs for each tier will differ from others. For example, different age groups may have different ideas of esteem or safety.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Advertising Examples
Of course, studying marketing theory is one thing, but to truly understand the importance of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it’s helpful to look at some concrete examples. Luckily, there are countless examples of Maslow marketing out there, if you just know where to look.
Interestingly, some of the best examples of hierarchy of needs marketing can be found towards the top of the pyramid. This makes a certain amount of sense, as luxury brands are often the best placed to cover all elements of Maslow’s hierarchy of consumer needs.
Check out the following ad from Mercedes:
This ad makes it explicitly that Mercedes AMG provide something above and beyond safety or other utilitarian purchasing factors for a car. Instead, with language like ‘cockpit’ and ‘wings’, the copy emphasises thrill and excitement. This isn’t a utilitarian product, it’s about fun. This hits the self actualization level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and consumer behaviour.
Additionally, the imagery touches on several tiers of Maslow’s behavioural theory. The open door is a clear visual metaphor for providing a sense of belonging, while the prominence of luxury Mercedes and AMG branding are aimed at projecting esteem.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Biological and Physiological Examples
The first two levels are Biological and Physiological needs, which are essential for the survival and physical well-being of an individual. Here are some examples of Biological and Physiological needs:
- Air and Breathing: The need for oxygen is the most basic biological need. Breathing clean air is crucial for human survival and is necessary for maintaining bodily functions.
- Food and Water: The need for sustenance is fundamental for survival. Access to an adequate and nutritious food supply, as well as clean drinking water, is essential for physical health and well-being.
- Shelter and Clothing: Having a safe and comfortable shelter protects individuals from the elements and provides a sense of security. Adequate clothing helps regulate body temperature and protects from environmental hazards.
- Sleep and Rest: Getting sufficient rest and sleep is essential for overall health and functioning. Restorative sleep allows the body and mind to recover and prepare for the day ahead.
- Physical Health and Wellness: The need for good health and well-being is vital for fulfilling other needs. Regular exercise, proper medical care, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle contribute to overall physical well-being.
- Sexual Reproduction: The biological need for procreation ensures the continuation of the human species.
- Homeostasis: Maintaining internal balance and stability within the body is a physiological need. This includes regulating body temperature, blood pressure, and other physiological processes.
- Elimination and Waste Management: The need to remove waste and toxins from the body is crucial for maintaining health and preventing illness.
These Biological and Physiological needs are the foundation upon which higher-level needs in Maslow’s Hierarchy, such as Safety, Love and Belonging, Esteem, and Self-Actualization, are built. Meeting these basic needs is essential for survival and lays the groundwork for individuals to pursue higher levels of personal growth, connection with others, and self-fulfilment.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Safety Examples
In Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, safety needs are the second level of the pyramid and come after the fulfilment of basic biological and physiological needs. Safety needs pertain to an individual’s desire for security, stability, and protection from harm.
Here are some examples of safety needs:
- Physical Safety: Feeling safe from physical harm is a primary safety need. This includes being in a safe and secure environment, free from the threat of violence, accidents, or danger.
- Emotional Safety: Emotional safety involves feeling secure and supported in expressing emotions without fear of judgment or negative consequences. It includes having trusting relationships where one can be vulnerable without the fear of rejection.
- Financial Security: The need for financial stability and security is essential for meeting safety needs. Having a stable income, savings, and access to resources to meet basic needs provides a sense of safety.
- Health and Well-Being: Ensuring good physical and mental health is part of safety needs. Access to healthcare, a healthy lifestyle, and preventive measures contribute to overall well-being and safety.
- Job Security: Having a stable and secure job is vital for fulfilling safety needs. Employment security provides a sense of stability and assurance against financial uncertainties.
- Safety at Home: Feeling safe and protected at home is crucial. This may include having a secure living environment, functioning locks, and alarm systems to prevent intrusions.
- Social Safety: Safety in social interactions involves being free from bullying, harassment, or discrimination. It includes feeling accepted and respected within one’s social circles.
- Legal and Judicial Safety: Having a fair and just legal system that upholds individual rights and ensures protection from injustice contributes to safety needs.
- Safety During Emergencies: Being prepared for emergencies, such as natural disasters or accidents, is essential for meeting safety needs. This includes having access to emergency services and contingency plans.
- Cultural and Political Safety: Feeling safe within one’s cultural or political identity is part of safety needs. It involves living in a society that respects diversity and protects individual rights.
Meeting safety needs creates a stable foundation for individuals to pursue higher-level needs in Maslow’s Hierarchy, such as love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. When safety needs are met, individuals can focus on personal growth, building relationships, and achieving their full potential in various areas of life.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Examples
Esteem needs to encompass both external and internal aspects of self-worth and recognition. Individuals seek to gain respect from others and develop a positive sense of self-esteem.
Here are some examples of esteem needs according to Maslow’s Hierarchy :
- Recognition and Appreciation: Feeling valued and appreciated for one’s contributions, whether at work, in personal relationships, or in the community, is an essential aspect of esteem needs.
- Achievement and Accomplishment: Striving for and attaining personal and professional goals contribute to fulfilling esteem needs. Accomplishments can include academic achievements, career advancements, or completing challenging projects.
- Self-Confidence: Having confidence in one’s abilities, talents, and decision-making capabilities is a crucial part of esteem needs. Self-assurance enables individuals to face challenges with optimism and resilience.
- Respect from Others: Being respected by peers, colleagues, and community members satisfies the need for external esteem. This recognition reinforces one’s positive self-image.
- Status and Prestige: Achieving a certain social or professional status can fulfil esteem needs. This could involve recognition in a particular field or position of authority within an organization.
- Competence and Mastery: Developing expertise in a skill or area of interest can boost self-esteem. The sense of competence derived from mastering something significant fulfils esteem needs.
- Positive Feedback and Praise: Receiving compliments, positive feedback, and praise from others positively reinforce self-esteem.
- Independence and Autonomy: Feeling independent and capable of making one’s own decisions contributes to fulfilling esteem needs. Autonomy reflects a sense of control and self-reliance.
- Self-Respect: Esteem needs also encompass internal factors, such as self-respect and self-acceptance. Treating oneself with kindness and acknowledging personal strengths lead to a positive self-image.
- Respect for Others: Demonstrating respect for others and acknowledging their achievements can contribute to a sense of self-esteem by fostering positive relationships and a sense of connectedness.
Meeting esteem needs is essential for fostering a positive self-concept and personal growth. When individuals feel valued, respected, and confident in their abilities, they are more likely to engage in fulfilling relationships, pursue higher-level aspirations, and work towards self-actualization – the pinnacle of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Love and Belonging Examples
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs suggests that human needs can be categorized into five levels, with each level building upon the previous one. The third level in the hierarchy is the need for love and belonging, which involves social connections, relationships, and a sense of belonging to a group or community.
Here are some examples of love and belonging needs being met:
- Family Bonds: Feeling loved and supported by family members, having close relationships with parents, siblings, and extended family, and having a strong emotional connection with family members fulfil the need for love and belonging.
- Friendships: Having close friendships with peers, colleagues, or neighbours provides a sense of companionship, support, and belongingness. Spending time with friends, sharing experiences, and being able to rely on one another fulfils the need for social connections.
- Romantic Relationships: Being in a loving and caring romantic relationship meets the need for love and intimacy. Feeling valued, understood, and emotionally connected to a partner satisfies this aspect of the hierarchy.
- Belonging to a Community or Group: Being a part of a community, club, or organization that shares common interests or values fulfils the need for belongingness. Examples include being a member of a sports team, a religious group, a hobby club, or a volunteer organization.
- Workplace Relationships: Positive relationships with coworkers and a supportive work environment contribute to a sense of belonging and connectedness in the workplace. Feeling valued as a team member and having social interactions with colleagues meet this need.
- Online Social Networks: Participating in online social platforms, such as social media communities or online forums, can also fulfil the need for love and belonging by providing virtual connections and opportunities for interaction.
- Supportive Classroom Environment: In educational settings, a classroom environment that encourages positive relationships between students and teachers can foster a sense of belonging and create a supportive learning atmosphere.
- Caring for Pets: Having a pet can also fulfil the need for love and belonging. The emotional bond between a pet owner and their animal companion can provide a strong sense of companionship and love.
- Support Groups and Therapy: Joining support groups or participating in therapy sessions can provide individuals with a sense of belonging and understanding, especially in challenging times or when facing specific life difficulties.
Meeting the need for love and belonging is essential for human well-being and is vital for fostering positive mental health and emotional fulfilment. When individuals feel connected and loved by others, they are more likely to thrive and experience a higher quality of life.
Take these examples into consideration when designing a marketing strategy or promotional advertisement. Our innate needs for love and belonging can be used to underpin how your product/service is able to fulfil these innate desires.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Self-Actualisation Examples
At the top of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is self-actualization, representing the highest level of human needs. Self-actualization refers to the realization of an individual’s full potential, personal growth, and fulfilment of one’s unique talents and capabilities. It is the desire to become the best version of oneself and to achieve self-fulfilment. Here are some characteristics and examples of self-actualization:
- Continued Growth and Development: Self-actualized individuals have a strong desire for ongoing personal growth and development. They are constantly seeking new challenges and opportunities to learn and improve themselves.
- Authenticity and Honesty: Self-actualized individuals are authentic and genuine. They are true to themselves and others, expressing their beliefs and values honestly.
- Creativity and Problem-Solving: Self-actualized individuals often exhibit high levels of creativity and original thinking. They enjoy solving problems and approaching challenges from innovative perspectives.
- Autonomy and Independence: Self-actualized individuals have a strong sense of autonomy and independence. They are self-reliant and capable of making decisions based on their own values and beliefs.
- Peak Experiences: Self-actualized individuals often have peak experiences, moments of intense joy, awe, or connection with the world around them. These experiences contribute to their sense of fulfillment and purpose.
- Altruism and Compassion: Self-actualized individuals may demonstrate a genuine concern for the well-being of others. They often engage in altruistic acts and show compassion and empathy towards others.
- Acceptance of Reality: Self-actualized individuals have a realistic understanding of themselves and the world. They accept both their strengths and weaknesses and have a balanced view of reality.
- Emotional Resilience: Self-actualized individuals tend to be emotionally resilient. They can cope with life’s challenges and setbacks in a positive and constructive manner.
- Meaning and Purpose: Self-actualized individuals often have a clear sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. They pursue goals that align with their values and contribute to their sense of fulfillment.
- Embracing the Journey: Self-actualized individuals value the journey of self-discovery and growth, not just the end result. They appreciate the process of becoming and value the lessons learned along the way.
It’s important to note that self-actualization is not a static state but rather an ongoing journey. Few individuals fully reach this level of needs, as it represents a continuous pursuit of personal growth and self-improvement. However, striving towards self-actualization can lead to a more fulfilling and meaningful life, as individuals become more aware of their unique abilities, strengths, and purpose in the world.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Motivation in the Workplace
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can offer valuable insights into understanding motivation in the workplace, which may be beneficial if your marketing materials are aimed at employees, potential recruiters or other stakeholders. The hierarchy of needs can help explain how different needs drive employee motivation and influence their behaviour.
Here’s how the hierarchy of needs relates to workplace motivation:
- Physiological Needs: At the foundational level, employees’ physiological needs must be met for them to function effectively in the workplace. These needs include basic requirements such as a fair salary, access to food, water, rest breaks, and a safe working environment. Meeting these needs ensures that employees feel secure and can focus on their job responsibilities without distraction.
- Safety Needs: Once physiological needs are fulfilled, employees seek a sense of security and safety in the workplace. This includes job security, a stable work environment, access to benefits, and protection from harm. Employees who feel safe and secure are more likely to be motivated to perform well and contribute to the organization’s success.
- Social Needs (Love and Belonging): Social needs in the workplace relate to the desire for positive relationships with coworkers, supervisors, and the sense of belonging to a team. Building a supportive and inclusive work culture, encouraging teamwork, and recognizing employees’ efforts can fulfill these social needs and contribute to higher levels of motivation and job satisfaction.
- Esteem Needs: Esteem needs are about feeling valued, respected, and recognized for one’s contributions. Providing employees with opportunities for growth, development, and recognition for their achievements can satisfy their esteem needs. Recognition programs, promotions, and challenging assignments can boost employee motivation and self-esteem.
- Self-Actualization: Self-actualization represents the highest level of need in Maslow’s hierarchy. In the workplace, self-actualization refers to fulfilling one’s potential, taking on meaningful projects, and pursuing personal and professional growth. Organizations that offer opportunities for skill development, autonomy, and career advancement can inspire employees to strive for self-actualization and reach their fullest potential.
For effective workplace motivation, employers should address needs at each level of the hierarchy. By providing a safe and supportive work environment, offering fair compensation and benefits, fostering positive relationships, recognizing employees’ efforts, and encouraging personal and professional growth, organizations can create a workplace that nurtures motivation and empowers employees to thrive.
It’s important to note that not all employees may be motivated by the same needs at the same time. Individuals’ motivations can be influenced by various factors, including their stage of life, personal goals, and career aspirations. Effective leaders and managers recognize and respond to these individual differences, tailoring motivational strategies to meet employees’ specific needs and preferences.
Using Maslow’s Theory to Underpin Marketing
In the context of marketing, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs provides valuable insights into understanding consumer behaviour and motivations. Marketers can use this theory to create effective marketing strategies that resonate with consumers’ needs and desires.
Marketers can design campaigns that speak to consumers on multiple levels and establish emotional connections with their target audience. Addressing consumers’ diverse needs and motivations in marketing efforts can lead to increased brand loyalty, stronger engagement, and a deeper connection with the products or services offered.